Diabetes Types and Symptoms

Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes is a lifelong disease. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. It describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience frequent urination; they will become increasingly thirsty and hungry. With diabetes mellitus, your body doesn't make enough insulin; it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. Diabetes especially if left untreated can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet.
Retinopathy. Symptoms of retinopathy are minimal until advanced disease ensues with loss or blurring of vision. Signs of nonproliferative retinopathy include microaneurysms, venous loops, retinal hemorrhages, hard exudates, and soft exudates. Proliferative retinopathy can include new vessels in the eyes or vitreous hemorrhage.
Nephropathy. The earliest sign of nephropathy is hypertension, which often coincides with the development of microalbuminuria. As nephropathy worsens, patients can develop edema, arrhythmias associated with hyperglycemia, or symptoms related to renal failure.
Neuropathy. Signs and symptoms of neuropathy depend on the type of neuropathy that develops. Most commonly, patients develop symptomatic distal polyneuropathy. Signs include decreased or total loss of ankle jerk reflexes and vibratory sensation, with hyperalgesia and calf pain in some patients. These usually present in a "stocking and glove" distribution. Wasting of the small muscle of the hands and feet also can occur.
Patients may present with focal neuropathies due to either mononeuritis or entrapment syndromes. These produce focal neurologic deficits confined to a single nerve. A rare but severe form of diabetic neuropathy is diabetic amyotrophy, which begins with pain followed by severe weakness and spreads from unilateral to bilateral. It resolves spontaneously in 18 to 24 months.



  • Diabetic Neuropathy
  • 3P-Polyuria,Polydipsia, Polyphagia
  • Blood glucose levels
  • Pre-diabetes
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1
  • Auto-immune Diabetes(Juvenile)
  • ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes mellitus
  • Gestational Diabetes(diabetes of pregnancy)
  • Congenital diabetes
  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
  • Steroid diabetes
  • Monogenic diabetes
  • Idiopathic diabetes
  • Osmotic pressure-Urinary system

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